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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Globalization

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Globalization

The Globalization of Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 gives students a comprehensive understanding of globalization a phenomenon that has reshaped the political, economic, and cultural landscapes of nations worldwide. From this chapter, students will gain valuable knowledge about the definition of globalization, the interconnectedness of the world, and the impact of globalization in India. This chapter is essential for your class’s 12th board exam in the past year exam where many questions came from this chapter. Memorysclub political science team of teachers provides the most suitable exam-oriented solutions for class 12 globalization vital questions and answers.

1.Which of the statements are ‘True’ about globalization?

(a) Globalisation is purely an economic phenomenon.
(b) Globalisation began in 1991.
(c) Globalisation is the same thing as westernisation.
(d) Globalisation is a multi-dimensional phenomenon.

Answer: (d) Globalisation is a multi-dimensional phenomenon.

2.Which of the statements are ‘True’ about the impact of globalisation?

(a) Globalisation has been uneven in its impact on states and societies.
(ib) Globalisation has had a uniform impact on all states and societies.
(c) The impact of globalisation has been confined to the political sphere.
(d) Globalisation inevitably results in cultural homogeneity.

Answer: (a) Globalisation has been uneven in its impact on states and societies.
(b) Globalisation inevitably results in cultural homogeneity.

3. Which of the statements are ‘True’ about Causes of globalization?

(a) Technology is an important cause of globalisation.
(b) Globalisation is caused by a particular community of people.
(c) Globalisation originated in the US.
(d) Economic interdependence alone causes globalisation.

Answer: (a) Technology is an important cause of globalisation.
(b) It originated in the US.

4. Which statements are ‘true’ about globalisation?

(a) Globalisation is only about movement of commodities.
(b) Globalisation does not involve a conflict of values.
(c) Services are an insignificant part of globalisation.
(d) Globalisation is about worldwide interconnectedness.

Answer: (b) Globalisation does not involve a conflict of values.
(d) Globalisation is about worldwide interconnectedness.

5. Which of the statements are False about globalisation?

(a) Advocates of globalisation argue that it will result in greater economic growth.
(b) Critics of globalisation argue that it will result in greater economic disparity.
(c) Advocates of globalisation argue that it will result in cultural homogenisa¬tion.
(d) Critics of globalisation argue that it will result in cultural homogenisation.

Answer: The statements (b) and (d) are false about globalisation.

6. What is worldwide interconnectedness? What are its components?

Worldwide interconnectedness refers to the increasing interdependence and connectivity among countries, societies, and individuals across the globe. It is characterized by the flow of goods, services, information, ideas, and cultural influences that transcend national borders. The components of worldwide interconnectedness include:

  1. Capital Flow: Movement of money between countries for loans or investments.
  2. Trade Flows of Goods: Exchange of goods between nations.
  3. Labour Flow: Movement of workers, including skilled individuals seeking employment abroad.

7. How has technology contributed to globalization?

Technology has been a key driver of globalization, revolutionizing communication, transportation, and business. The internet and digital platforms have connected people globally, enabling instant communication and facilitating international trade. E-commerce has allowed businesses to reach a global audience, while automation has streamlined production processes and supply chains. Technology has also fostered international collaboration in research and innovation. Digital financial transactions and investments have further integrated economies, and remote work has created a globalized workforce. Overall, technology has significantly contributed to the interconnected and interdependent nature of the modern world.

8. Critically evaluate the impact of the changing role of state in the developing countries in the light of globalization?

The impact of the changing role of the state in developing countries in the light of globalization can be summarized as follows:

  1. Globalization reduces the ability of governments to function effectively.
  2. The market has become the primary concern in setting economic and social priorities.
  3. Multinational corporations influence government decisions as their interests depend on government policies.
  4. The old welfare state is now being replaced by a minimalist state that focuses on core functions such as law enforcement and security.
  5. The state also withdraws from many of its welfare functions that relate to economic and social well-being.
  6. To some extent, developing countries have benefited from globalization, gaining access to new technologies.

9. What are the economic implications of globalization? How has globalization impacted India with regard to this particular dimension?

Economic Implications of Globalization (Positive):

  1. Increased Economic Flows: Globalization refers to the increased exchange of goods, services, and resources among countries, which promotes international economic cooperation.
  2. Enhanced Trade: It has facilitated the exchange of commodities among countries, boosting international trade and economic integration.
  3. Reduced Restrictions: Globalization has led to a reduction in restrictions on imports and the movement of capital, promoting a more open global economy.
  4. Spread of Services: Internet and computer-related services have spread across national boundaries, enhancing connectivity and technological exchange.

Negative Economic Implications:

  1. Inequality Concerns: Economic globalization has led to concerns that it primarily benefits a small section of society, resulting in increased economic inequality.
  2. Unequal Movement of People: There is an inequality in the movement of people globally, as developed countries have strict border controls to ensure job security for their citizens, limiting opportunities for others.
  3. Disparities Among States: Globalization has contributed to disparities among states, widening the wealth gap by enriching the already affluent and marginalizing the economically disadvantaged.

Impact of Globalization on India:

  1. Job Creation: Globalization has resulted in the creation of new jobs at multinational corporations in industries such as mobile phones and fast food.
  2. Trade and Commerce Role: India plays a crucial role among developing countries in trade and commerce, with some companies becoming multinational themselves, such as Tata Motors and Ranbaxy.
  3. Increased Foreign Direct Investment: Globalization has attracted increased Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into India, contributing to economic growth.
  4. The inflow of Capital: India has witnessed the inflow of private foreign capital, fostering export-oriented activities and economic development.

The economic impact of globalization on India reflects a mix of positive outcomes, such as job creation and increased foreign investment, alongside challenges related to inequality and disparities. It underscores the need for balanced policies to harness the benefits of globalization while addressing its negative implications.

10. Do you agree with the argument that globalization leads to cultural heterogeneity?

The argument presented highlights the nuanced nature of cultural consequences in the context of globalization. It rightly acknowledges that external influences on cultures are multifaceted and not always synonymous with cultural heterogeneity. Here are the key points made:

  • Acceptance of Outside Influences: Cultures continuously accept external influences, and this does not necessarily lead to cultural homogeneity. Instead, the acceptance of outside elements can enrich and diversify cultural expressions. 
  • Negative and Positive Influences: External influences may have both negative and positive consequences. Some influences might limit choices, while others may broaden options or modify culture in ways that do not necessarily overshadow traditions.
  • Cultural Modification: The example of combining a burger with a masala dosa or pairing blue jeans with a homespun Khadi-Kurta illustrates the potential for cultural modification. These combinations showcase the dynamic nature of cultures, allowing for unique blends that emerge from external influences.
  • Promotion of Cultural Outlook: Rather than leading to complete homogenization, globalization is seen as supportive in promoting a broader cultural outlook. It encourages the appreciation of diverse cultural elements and facilitates the coexistence of traditional practices with modern influences.

In essence, the argument suggests that globalization, far from uniformly promoting cultural homogeneity, can foster a more inclusive and diverse cultural landscape. The coexistence of traditional and external elements reflects the adaptability of cultures to external influences, resulting in a dynamic and evolving cultural tapestry.

11. How has globalization impacted on India and how is India in turn impacting on globalization?

Impact of Globalization on India:

  1. Economic Growth: Globalization has contributed to India’s economic growth by opening up markets, attracting foreign direct investment (FDI), and promoting international trade. The country has become a key player in the global economy.
  2. Job Creation: Industries such as information technology (IT) and business process outsourcing (BPO) have flourished, creating job opportunities and contributing to India’s emergence as a global outsourcing hub.
  3. Technological Advancements: Globalization has facilitated the transfer of technology and knowledge, especially in the IT sector, where India has become a major player in software development and IT services.
  4. Cultural Exchange: India has experienced cultural exchange through the global spread of its cinema, music, and traditional art forms. Bollywood, in particular, has gained international recognition.
  5. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): India has attracted substantial FDI in various sectors, including telecommunications, manufacturing, and services, enhancing infrastructure and contributing to economic development.

India’s Impact on Globalization:

  1. Information Technology: India’s IT industry has played a pivotal role in shaping the global IT landscape. Indian IT companies provide services to businesses worldwide, contributing to the digital transformation of global industries.
  2. Outsourcing: The outsourcing industry in India has had a profound impact on global businesses, leading to cost-effective solutions and improved efficiency. Many multinational companies outsource services to Indian firms.
  3. Pharmaceuticals: India’s pharmaceutical industry is a major global player, supplying affordable generic medicines to various countries. This has influenced global healthcare accessibility.
  4. Diaspora Influence: The Indian diaspora has played a significant role in globalizing Indian culture and contributing to the economies of various countries. Indian communities abroad maintain cultural ties and influence local societies.
  5. International Trade: India’s participation in international trade forums and agreements has increased, influencing global trade policies. The country’s economic policies have implications for global economic dynamics.
  6. Climate Change Initiatives: India’s efforts to address climate change, including renewable energy initiatives, contribute to global discussions and actions aimed at mitigating environmental challenges.

In summary, globalization has had a multifaceted impact on India, contributing to economic growth, technological advancements, and cultural exchange. Simultaneously, India has become a significant player in shaping global industries, influencing economic policies, and contributing to various global initiatives. The reciprocal relationship between India and globalization underscores the interconnectedness and interdependence of nations in the contemporary world.