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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 1

Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 1 Challenges of Nation Building

The challenges of nation building of Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 1 gives students a comprehensive understanding of India facеd in thе aftеrmath of indеpеndеncе with this comprеhеnsivе summary on thе “Challеngеs of Nation Building.

From this chapter, students will gain valuable knowledge about the struggle for unity in diversity, the establishment of democracy, and the integration of princely states. It also sheds light on how the traumatic partition of 1947 shaped the nation’s early years. This insightful summary provides a glimpse into the post-independence era, highlighting the roles played by leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel. This chapter is essential for your class’s 12th board exam in the past year exam where many questions came from this chapter. Memorysclub political science team of teachers provides the most suitable exam-oriented solutions for class 12 Political Science challenges of nation building question answers.

class 12 political science part 2 chapter 1 challenges of nation building_

1. Which among the following statements Is the partition incorrect?

(a) Partition of India was the outcome of the “two-nation theory”.
(b) Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces divided on the basis of religion.
(c) East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not contiguous.
(d) The scheme of Partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.

Answer: (d) The scheme of partition included a plan for the transfer of population across the border.

3. Take a current political map of India (showing outlines of states) and mark the location of the following Princely States.

(a) Junagadh (b) Manipur
(c) Mysore (d) Gwalior.

Answer: Please see the Map attached at the end of the chapter. The places are marked as 3(a), 3(b), 3(c) and 3(d).

4. Here are two opinions: Bismay: “The merger with the Indian State was an extension of democracy to the people of the Princely States.” Inderpreet: “I am not so sure, there was force being used. Democracy comes by creating consensus. ”What is your opinion in the light of accession of Princely States and the responses of the people in these parts?

Answer: The accession of Princely States and merger with the Indian union was to expand democracy all over the country because princely states never enjoyed their political rights. The Indian central government used force to extend democracy to some extent as this was mandatory to have a uniform base in the country.

5. Read the following very different statements made in August 1947: “Today you have worn on your heads a crown of thorns. The seat of power is a nasty thing. You have to remain ever wakeful on that seat… you have to be more humble and forbearing… now there will be no end to your being tested. ” -M.K, Gandhi “India will awake to a life of freedom…. we step out from the old to the new…. we end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity …”, -Jawaharlal Nehru Spelled out the agenda of nation building that flows from these two statements. Which one appeals more to you and why?

Answer: These two statements focus on the agenda of secularism, democracy, sovereignty and freedom. It focuses on the path which will lead to the real development and prosperity of our country. The first statement appeals to me more than the second one because it invokes the countrymen to remain awake, alert and conscious as it is not the end of our struggle. The time to build the nation starts now.

6. What are the reasons being used by Nehru for keeping India secular? Do you think these reasons were only ethical and sentimental? Or were there some prudential reasons as well?

Answer:  Reasons for keeping India secular:

  1. All the Muslims did not leave India during participation, some Muslims stayed in India as a minority and Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to deal with them in a very civilized and dignified manner.
  2. He advocated security and democratic rights of Muslims as a citizen of India.

No, these reasons were not only ethical and sentimental, but there were some prudential reasons also as:

  1. India’s secular nature cherished its long term goals and principles like socialism, equality, liberty and fraternity.
  2. Secularism stops any single faith to become superior and inferior to those who practice another religion. Hence it considers all citizens equal irrespective of religious affiliation.

7. Bring out two major differences between the challenge of nation-building for eastern and western regions of the country at the time of Independence.

Answer –

  1. Bengal in the east and Punjab in the west were provinces where the majority of the population was Muslim. As a result, these provinces were included in the newly formed country, Pakistan. This led to the establishment of two distinct territories within Pakistan: West Pakistan, which comprised Punjab and other western regions, and East Pakistan, which comprised Bengal.
  2. The partition led to a massive movement of populations, creating a complex situation for minorities on both sides of the border. In areas of Pakistan, especially in Punjab and Bengal, millions of Hindus and Sikhs found themselves compelled to leave their homes. Similarly, Muslims on the Indian side of Punjab and Bengal faced a similar predicament, resulting in large-scale displacement and the challenge of resettling populations.

This succinctly captures the geopolitical and demographic dynamics that played a pivotal role in shaping the destinies of the eastern and western regions during the partition era.

8. What was the task of the States Reorganisation Commission? What was its most salient recommendation?

Answer – The Central Government set up the State Re-organisation Commission in 1953 to investigate redrawing state boundaries.

  1. The SRC was instrumental in recommending the linguistic reorganization of states. It recognized the importance of linguistic and cultural affinities in fostering a sense of unity among the people. Ex – Andhra Pradesh 
  2. The State Re-organisation Act was passed in 1956 which resulted in the creation of 14 states and 6 union territories.
  3.  Its most salient recommendation was the formation of linguistic states i.e. to reorganize states based on the accommodation of their languages to prepare a uniform base for the nation.

Most Salient Recommendation:

The most notable and salient recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission was the reorganization of states on linguistic lines.


9. It is said that the nation is to large extent an “imagined community” held together by common beliefs, history, political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.

Answer – India, like many other nations, can be considered an “imagined community” that is bound together by shared beliefs, history, political aspirations, and collective imagination. Several features contribute to India’s identity as a nation:

  1. Diversity and Pluralism: – India is characterized by immense diversity in terms of languages, religions, cultures, and ethnicities. Despite this diversity, the idea of India as a nation is founded on the principle of unity in diversity, where various communities coexist within a shared national framework.
  2. Historical Unity: – India has a rich historical legacy that includes ancient civilizations, empires, and independence movements. The struggle against colonial rule, led by figures like Mahatma Gandhi, played a crucial role in shaping a collective identity and a shared narrative of the nation’s history.
  3. Independence Movement: – The Indian independence movement was a unifying force that brought together people from various regions and communities with the common goal of liberating the country from British rule. The shared experience of the independence struggle contributes to a sense of national identity.
  4. Constitutional Values: – The adoption of the Constitution of India in 1950 established a framework that upholds democratic principles, equality, and fundamental rights. The Constitution serves as a unifying document that provides a common set of values for all citizens, irrespective of their diverse backgrounds.
  5. Secularism: – India’s commitment to secularism is enshrined in its Constitution. The idea of a secular state, where individuals have the freedom to practice their religions, contributes to the nation’s identity by promoting religious harmony and inclusivity.
  6. Political Integration: – The process of political integration after independence involved the reorganization of states based on linguistic lines, as recommended by the States Reorganisation Commission. This contributed to a sense of identity for linguistic communities within the larger Indian nation.
  7. Cultural Heritage: – India boasts a rich cultural heritage encompassing art, literature, music, dance, and philosophy. Cultural symbols and practices contribute to a shared sense of belonging and identity among the people.

In essence, the imagined community of India is forged through a combination of historical experiences, constitutional principles, cultural bonds, and a commitment to unity in diversity. These features collectively shape the national identity and sense of belonging among the people of India.

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