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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 7 Recent Developments in Indian Politics

Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 7 Recent Developments in Indian Politics ​

Recent developments in Indian politics of Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 7 gives students a comprehensive knowledge of the new era of coalition politics the emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement. In this chapter notes, students read about the emergence of the BJP as a significant force in post-emergency politics the decline of Congress dominance, and how the Congress party continues to influence politics in the country. 

This chapter is essential for your class’s 12th board exam in the past year exam where many questions came from this chapter. Memorysclub political science team of teachers provides the most suitable exam-oriented solutions for recent developments in Indian politics class 12 question answers.

1. Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping files of Unni-Munni… and arrange the file chronologically.

(a) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir.
(b) Formation of Janata Dal.
(c) The demolition of Babri Masjid.
(d) Assassination of India Gandhi.
(e) The formation of the NDA government.
(f) Godhra incident and its fallout.
(g) Formation of UPA government.

Answer: (a) Assassination of India Gandhi(1984).
(b) Formation of Janata Dal (1989)
(c) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir (1990)
(d) The demolition of Babri Masjid (1992)
(e) The formation of NDA government (1997)
(g) Formation of UPA government (2004)

2. Match the following:


Answer: (a)-(iv), (b)-(ii), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii).

3. State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?

The period after 1989 witnessed significant developments and shifts in Indian politics. Several key issues emerged, influencing the political landscape. Some main issues include:

Coalition Politics: – The era after 1989 marked a departure from single-party dominance, leading to the rise of coalition politics. No single party gained a clear majority at the national level, necessitating the formation of coalition governments.

Economic Reforms: – The early 1990s saw the initiation of economic liberalization and reforms. Policies aimed at dismantling the license-permit raj, opening up the economy to foreign investment, and pursuing market-oriented reforms were implemented. The economic agenda became a focal point in Indian politics.

Caste-Based Politics: – Caste-based politics continued to be a significant factor, with parties focusing on mobilizing support along caste lines. The Mandal Commission recommendations on reservations for Other Backward Classes (OBCs) in government jobs further fueled caste-based mobilization.

Communal Tensions: – Communal tensions and religious polarization remained prominent issues. Controversies around religious symbols, temple-mosque disputes, and communal violence were factors influencing political dynamics.

Regional Aspirations: – Regional aspirations and demands for greater autonomy or statehood persisted. Various regions sought recognition of their unique identities and interests, leading to the formation of new states or the reorganization of existing ones.

Globalization and Foreign Policy: – With the increasing process of globalization, India’s foreign policy dynamics evolved. Economic diplomacy, strategic partnerships, and international engagements became critical aspects of India’s political agenda.

These issues led to different configurations of political parties and alliances. Some notable political configurations include:

Congress Dominance (1989-1996): – The Congress party remained a major player, and the period started with a coalition government led by the Congress under Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. However, it faced challenges, and after 1989, the era of coalition politics began. 

4. “In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or realigning on the basis of ideology.” What arguments would you put forward to support or oppose this statement?

The statement is justified because in the new era of coalition politics the emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement:

  1. The nature of politics in a coalition government has changed. Rather than emphasizing ideological differences, the focus has shifted to creating power-sharing arrangements between the parties involved.
  2. Most parties in the NDA did not agree with BJP’s ‘Hindutva’ ideology, yet they formed a government together and remained in power for a full term.

5. Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-Emergency politics.

The emergence of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) as a significant force in post-Emergency politics in India is a complex process that evolved over several years. The BJP, founded in 1980, grew out of the broader political and ideological context of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and the Jana Sangh. Here is a chronological overview of the key milestones in the BJP’s emergence:

Jana Sangh (1951-1977): – The political roots of the BJP can be traced back to the formation of the Jana Sangh in 1951, a political party founded by Syama Prasad Mookerjee and others. The Jana Sangh was associated with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and espoused a nationalist and right-wing ideology.

Emergency (1975-1977): – The period of the Emergency (1975-1977), during which civil liberties were suspended and political opposition suppressed, played a crucial role in shaping the political landscape. The Jana Sangh, along with other opposition parties, was banned during the Emergency.

Formation of Janata Party (1977): – In the aftermath of the Emergency, the Janata Party, a coalition of opposition parties including the Jana Sangh, was formed. The Janata Party emerged victorious in the 1977 general elections, ending the rule of the Congress party.

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Formation (1980): – In 1980, after internal ideological and organizational differences within the Janata Party, the Jana Sangh formally withdrew from the coalition and reorganized itself as the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The formation of the BJP marked a new phase in right-wing politics in India.

Ram Janmabhoomi Movement (1980s-1990s): – The BJP gained prominence in the 1980s through its involvement in the Ram Janmabhoomi movement, which sought to build a Ram temple at the disputed site in Ayodhya. The movement mobilized support across the country and contributed to the party’s electoral success.

Electoral Gains (1989): – In the 1989 general elections, the BJP became the principal opposition party in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of India’s Parliament. It secured significant electoral gains, winning 85 seats.

Coalition Politics and NDA (1990s): – The 1990s saw the BJP playing a crucial role in coalition politics. It formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with other political parties, and Atal Bihari Vajpayee became the Prime Minister for a short duration in 1996, and later in 1998 and 1999.

Kargil War and Pokhran Tests (1998): – The BJP government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee gained popularity due to successful military operations in the Kargil War and the nuclear tests at Pokhran in 1998, enhancing the party’s image.

Victory in 2014 and 2019: – The BJP secured a decisive victory in the 2014 general elections under the leadership of Narendra Modi, who became the Prime Minister. The party’s emphasis on development, good governance, and nationalism resonated with voters. The BJP repeated its success in the 2019 elections, securing a majority on its own.

6. In spite of the decline of Congress dominance the Congress party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.

The defeat of the Congress Party in 1989 marked the end of Congress’s dominance over the Indian Party System. But Congress continued to influence politics in the country:

  1. After the midterm elections in 1991, Congress improved its performance and was able to regain power.
  2. It also supported the United Front government.
  3. In 1996, the Left supported a non-Congress government, which Congress also supported to keep the BJP out of power.
  4. Since 1989, Congress has remained an important party that ruled the country more than any other party. However, it lost the centrality it previously enjoyed in the party system.

7. Many people think that a two-party system is required for successful democracy. Drawing from India’s experience of the last twenty years, write an essay on what advantages the present party system in India has.

During the first decade of electoral politics in India, there was no recognized opposition party. However, before the first General Election in 1952, many diverse and dynamic opposition parties had come into existence, known as the non-Congress parties. As a result, the origins of almost all of today’s non-Congress parties can be traced back to one or more of the opposition parties from the 1950s.

All these opposition parties only gained representation, but their presence was crucial to maintain a democratic system. Therefore, a two-party system is necessary for successful democracy due to the following reasons:

  1. A multi-party system allows for better representation of this diversity, ensuring that a wide range of perspectives and interests are considered in the decision-making process.
  2. Opposition parties play a vital role in scrutinizing government policies, ensuring accountability, and preventing the abuse of power.
  3. Parties compete by proposing diverse policy solutions, fostering innovation, and adapting to changing societal needs. This adaptability is crucial in addressing emerging challenges and promoting sustainable development.
  4. Multi-party systems facilitate effective representation at the local and regional levels. Regional parties often play a significant role in championing the specific needs and aspirations of their respective regions. 

On the basis of above mentioned features it is justifiable to have a two party system which have following advantages:

  1. India has arrived at more competitive politics.
  2. Political parties act within the spheres of consensus.