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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science ​

NCERT Solution of 12th Class Political Science Chapter 1 The End of Bipolarity​

Class 12 political science chapter 1 is titled ‘The End of Bipolarity’ in Contemporary World Politics. In this chapter, students read about the events that marked the end of the Cold War era. The fall of the Berlin Wall, the disintegration of the Second World, and the collapse of the Soviet Union are discussed in detail. Memorysclub expert teachers wrote the causes and consequences of these historical milestones, students gain insights into the complex dynamics that reshaped global politics and set the stage for the emergence of new nations. Memorysclub provides political science class 12 chapter 1 question answers and also the end of bipolarity notes. The end of bipolarity is provided by subject experts in a well-structured manner, making it easier for students to learn and understand. 

1. Which of the following statements that describe the nature of the Soviet economy is wrong?​

(a) Socialism was the dominant ideology.
(b) State ownership/control existed over the factors of production.
(c) People enjoyed economic freedom.
(d) Every aspect of the economy was planned and contained by the state.

2. Arrange the following in chronological order:

(a) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
(b) Fall of the Berlin Wall
(c) Disintegration of the Soviet Union
(d) Russian Revolution

(d) Russian Revolution (1917)
(a) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979)
(b) Fall of the Berlin Wall (Nov 1989)
(c) Disintegration of the Soviet Union

3. Which among the following is NOT an outcome of the disintegration of the USSR?

(a) End of the ideological war between the US and USSR
(b) Birth of CIS
(c) Change in the balance of power in the world order
(d) Crises in the Middle East
Answer: (d) Crises in the Middle East

6. Mention any three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US.

The Soviet economy, especially during the era of the Soviet Union, exhibited several features that distinguished it from capitalist economies like that of the United States. Here are three key features:

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) came into being after the socialist revolution in Russia in 1917. The revolution was inspired by the ideals of socialism, as opposed to capitalism, and the need for an egalitarian society.

  1. It had a complex communication network, vast energy resources, including oil, iron, and steel, machinery production, and an efficient transport sector that connected even the remote areas.
  2. From pins to cars, the domestic consumer industry produced everything, but their quality did not match that of the Western capitalist countries.
  3. The Soviet government provided its citizens with a minimum standard of living, subsidizing healthcare, education, childcare, and other welfare schemes.
  4. State ownership was the dominant form of ownership: land and productive assets were owned and controlled by the Soviet state.
  5. There was no unemployment.

7. What were the factors that forced Gorbachev to initiate the reforms in the USSR?

Mikhail Gorbachev was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985. Mikhail Gorbachev implemented perestroika and glasnost reforms in the Soviet Union during the 1980s. He was Compel to initiate the reforms in the USSR for to following reasons:

  1. It was important to keep the Soviet Union informed about the technological advancements happening in the West.
  2. The Soviet economy was experiencing stagnation and inefficiencies. Centralized planning and a lack of market mechanisms had led to a sluggish economy with low productivity and a scarcity of consumer goods.
  3. The arms race with the United States was straining the Soviet economy. The Soviet Union devoted a significant portion of its resources to military spending, diverting funds away from areas that could have benefited the civilian population.
  4. The Soviet Union was facing challenges from nationalist movements in various republics. Ethnic tensions and desires for greater autonomy were on the rise, posing a threat to the unity of the Soviet state. Gorbachev’s reforms were, in part, an attempt to address these nationalist sentiments.
  5. The limitations on information flow and public dissatisfaction with the status quo became increasingly evident. Gorbachev’s policy of glasnost aimed to increase transparency and allow for greater public participation in political discourse.
  6. To democratize the Soviet System.

8. What were the major consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union for countries like India?

The disintegration of the Soviet Union had significant consequences for countries like India. Here are some of the major outcomes:

  1. The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in the loss of a significant economic partner for India, disrupting economic ties and impacting India’s economy.
  2. The Cold War’s end and the Soviet Union’s collapse changed global power dynamics. India’s close alliance with the Soviet Union forced it to reassess foreign policy and defense strategies. 
  3. India’s defense procurement had been heavily reliant on the Soviet Union for military hardware. The disintegration prompted India to diversify its sources of defense equipment, leading to the adoption of a more multi-vectored approach in arms procurement.
  4. The disintegration of the Soviet Union coincided with a period of economic reforms in India. The end of the Cold War encouraged India to open up its economy further and pursue liberalization and globalization policies to attract foreign investment and integrate into the global economy.
  5. The collapse of the Soviet Union marked the end of the bipolar world order, and the emergence of a unipolar world with the United States as the dominant superpower. This shift had implications for India’s foreign policy, requiring adjustments to navigate the new global dynamics.

9. What was Shock Therapy? Was this the best way to make a transition from communism to capitalism?

Shock therapy” refers to a set of rapid and complete changeover economic reforms implemented in several second-world countries during the transition from centrally planned economies to market-oriented systems. The core idea behind shock therapy was to swiftly introduce free-market principles and dismantle the centralized planning structures characteristic of communist economies. The economic model implemented by the World Bank and the IMF in Russia, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe was known as shock therapy.

The transition from communism to capitalism through shock therapy was deemed suboptimal due to several drawbacks:

  1. Russia’s state-controlled industrial complex lost around 90% of its industries through sales to private individuals and companies.
  2. It created “the largest garage sale in history,” which led to the practical vanishing of entire industries. The reorganization was applied due to market forces. Hence, industries were undervalued and sold at throwaway prices.
  3. It methodically dismantled the old system of social welfare.
  4. The value of the ruble, the Russian currency, declined dramatically. The rate of inflation was so high that people lost all their savings.
  5. The collective farm system disintegrated leaving people without food security, and Russia started to import food.
  6. The real GDP of Russia in 1999 was below what it was in 1989. The old trading structure broke down with no alternative in its place.
  7. A mafia emerged in most of these countries and started controlling many economic activities.

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