Memorysclub / NCERT Solutions / NCERT Solutions for Class 12 / NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science / NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 Alternative Centres of Power

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 2 Alternative Centres of Power

Alternative Centres of Power Class 12 Question Answers

Enhance your marks in the class 12 board exam with alternative centres of power class 12 notes. Our team answers all back exercise questions from Chapter 2 Contemporary Centres of Power in the NCERT Class 12 Political Science Book – Contemporary World Politics. In this chapter, students read about the events that marked new emerging powers in international world politics as ASEAN, China, and the European Union other hand you also read about ASEAN and the European Union’s objectives and features. Memorysclub’s political science team of teachers provides the best exam-oriented solutions for alternative centres of power class 12 important questions. Below are the alternative centres of power class 12 question answers.

1. Arrange the following in chronological order:


(a) Reflects the lifestyle of ASEAN members.
(b) A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative.
(c) The defense policy followed by the ASEAN members.
(d) The road that connects all the ASEAN members.

Answer: (b) A form of interaction among ASEAN members that is informal and cooperative.

3. Who among the following adopted an ‘open door’ policy?

(a) China
(b) EU
(c) Japan 
(d) USA

Answer: (a) China

4. Fill in the blanks:

Answer: (a) Arunachal Pradesh, Aksai Chin,
(b) 1994, (c) the US, (d) Marshall,
(e) Asian Regional Forum

5. What are the objectives of establishing regional organizations?

Establishing regional organizations serves various objectives, and the specific goals may vary depending on the context and the needs of the participating nations. Here are some common objectives of establishing regional organizations:

  1. Regional organizations aim to promote economic cooperation and trade among member states. This often involves reducing trade barriers, tariffs, and harmonizing economic policies to facilitate the movement of goods and services within the region.
  2. Regional organizations often work towards maintaining peace and security within the region. This may involve conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and peacekeeping efforts.
  3. Regional organizations can develop and maintain infrastructure to enhance connectivity and economic activities.
  4. Regional organizations may work together to address common environmental challenges, such as pollution, deforestation, and climate change, through coordinated policies and actions.

6. How does geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organizations?

Geographical proximity plays a significant role in the creation of regional organizations. This is because the physical distance between countries or territories can affect their political, economic, and social ties, making it easier for them to collaborate and cooperate on common goals and challenges.

The geographical proximity influences the formation of regional organizations because:

  1. The establishment of regional organizations can be influenced by historical conflicts and vulnerabilities.
  2. Common interests occasionally bring nations together in regional collaborations.
  3. Geographical proximity often leads to the identification of economically beneficial regions within the same geographic area.

7. What are the components of the ASEAN Vision 2020?

The components of ASEAN Vision 2020 can be summed up as follows:

  1. Its Vision 2020 has defined an outward-looking role for ASEAN in the international community. 
  2.  These build on the existing ASEAN policy to encourage negotiation over disputes in the region.
  3. ASEAN has mediated the end of the Cambodian conflict and the East Timor crisis. It meets annually to discuss East Asian cooperation.

8. Name the pillars aid objectives of the ASEAN community.

The ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) community is built upon three pillars, each with its specific objectives. These pillars form the foundation for regional cooperation and integration:

ASEAN Political-Security Community (APSC):

  • Objective: To promote peace, stability, and resilience in the region through political and security cooperation.
  • Key Areas of Focus: Developing a rules-based regional security framework, preventive diplomacy, conflict resolution, and counter-terrorism efforts.

ASEAN Economic Community (AEC):

  • Objective: To establish a single market and production base, fostering economic integration and competitiveness within the region.
  • Key Areas of Focus: Free movement of goods, services, investment, skilled labor, and the facilitation of trade and investment.

ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC):

  • Objective: To build a people-oriented, inclusive, and socially responsible community that addresses the well-being of ASEAN citizens.
  • Key Areas of Focus: Enhancing human development, social welfare, environmental sustainability, and promoting a sense of ASEAN identity and community.

These three pillars collectively work towards the vision of an integrated and harmonious ASEAN community, addressing political, economic, and socio-cultural dimensions for the mutual benefit of member states and their citizens.

9. In what ways does the present Chinese economy differ from its command economy?

The Chinese leadership took major policy decisions in the 1970s. Here are some key ways in which the present Chinese economy differs from its historical command economy:

  1. China ended its political and economic isolation with the establishment of relations with the United States in 1972. 
  2. By 1978, the then leader Deng Xiaoping announced the ‘open door’ policy and economic reforms in China.
  3. The Chinese economy established new trading laws and created Special Economic Zones, leading to a higher rise in foreign trade. During the command economy era, international trade was minimal, and per capita income was very low.
  4. The new economic policies helped the Chinese economy to break from stagnation.

10. How did the European countries resolve their Post Second World War problem? Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of the European Union.

After the Second World War ended in 1945, European states had to deal with economic ruin and the destruction of assumptions and structures that Europe had been built upon. To resolve these issues, European countries adopted various measures.

  1. America provided extensive financial aid to revive Europe’s economy under the Marshall Plan.
  2. The US also created a new collective security structure under NATO.
  3.  In 1948, the Organization for European Economic Cooperation was established under the Marshall Plan to foster economic cooperation among Western European states. 
  4. The European Union was founded in 1992 for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs, and the design of a single currency. It evolved from an economic union to a political one over time.

The following attempts led to the formation of European Union:

  • The Council of Europe was founded in 1949 to facilitate political cooperation.
  1. The formation of the European Economic Community in 1957 resulted from the process of economic integration among European capitalist countries.
  2. The processes mentioned above took on a political significance after the establishment of the European Parliament.
  3. The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the establishment of the European Union in 1992, putting Europe on a fast track for progress.

11. What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organization?

The European Union (EU) is considered a highly influential regional organization for several reasons:

Economic Powerhouse:

  • The EU represents one of the largest and most integrated single markets in the world. Its collective economic strength makes it a significant player in global trade and finance. The euro, the EU’s common currency, is a key global reserve currency.

Political Integration:

  • The EU has achieved a high level of political integration among its member states. It has developed common institutions and policies, fostering cooperation and coordination in areas such as foreign affairs, security, and justice.

Soft Power and Diplomacy:

  • The EU exercises significant soft power through its diplomatic influence, promoting its values of democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. Its enlargement policy has encouraged neighboring countries to adopt democratic reforms to meet EU standards.

Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP):

  • The CFSP allows the EU to coordinate its foreign policy, enabling member states to speak with a common voice on international issues. The EU engages in diplomatic efforts, conflict resolution, and crisis management.

Enlargement Policy:

  • The EU’s policy of enlargement has attracted neighboring countries, fostering stability and democracy in the region. The prospect of EU membership serves as an incentive for countries to implement political and economic reforms.

Human Rights and Rule of Law:

  • The EU places a strong emphasis on human rights and the rule of law. It has mechanisms, such as the European Court of Justice, to ensure member states comply with these principles. The EU’s influence extends beyond its borders through the promotion of these values.

Social and Environmental Standards:

  • The EU promotes high social and environmental standards. Its regulations and standards have a global impact, as companies worldwide often adhere to EU standards to access its market.

Innovative Policies:

  • The EU has been at the forefront of developing innovative policies, such as the Schengen Agreement for passport-free travel, the Erasmus+ program for education and cultural exchange, and ambitious climate change targets.

Common Currency (Euro):

  • The adoption of the euro by a significant number of member states enhances economic cooperation and stability. The euro’s global importance contributes to the EU’s influence in international financial markets.

Crisis Response and Solidarity:

  • The EU has demonstrated its ability to respond to crises, such as the financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic, through coordinated economic policies and financial support. This showcases solidarity and resilience within the union.

12. The emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.

The Indo-China relations were strategically organized as rising economic powers in global politics. They played a significant role in the Asian economy after the Cold War.

  1. The new economic policies of India and China have broken their economy from stagnancy.
  1. The establishment of designated economic zones has resulted in a remarkable increase in international trade.
  1. China has become the most important destination for foreign direct investment anywhere in the world. Hence, it has large reserves for foreign exchange to allow it to make big investments in other countries.
  1. India and China have both adopted similar policies at the global level under the World Trade Organisation to integrate further with the world economy and challenge the unipolar world.

13. The peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organizations. Justify this statement.

The statement that the peace and prosperity of countries lay in the establishment and strengthening of regional economic organizations is justified by several compelling reasons. Regional economic organizations play a crucial role in fostering cooperation, stability, and economic development, which contribute to overall peace and prosperity. Here are key justifications for this statement:

  1. ASEAN is rapidly growing as a regional organization. Its Vision 2020 includes an outward-looking role in the international community and encouraging negotiations to resolve conflicts in the region.
  2. The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) is responsible for maintaining coordination of security and foreign policy in the region.
  3. The EU has also been funded on the grounds of common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice, and home affairs.
  4. The European Union has also extended cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the Soviet bloc.

14. Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater cooperation? Give your suggestions.

China and India have experienced various contentious issues that have strained their bilateral relations. It’s important to note that the geopolitical landscape is dynamic, and the situation may have evolved since then. As of the last update, some of the key contentious issues include:

Border Disputes:

  • The long-standing border disputes, particularly in the Himalayan region, have been a major source of tension. The Line of Actual Control (LAC) has been a subject of disagreement, leading to occasional military standoffs.

Tibet Issue:

  • India’s hosting of the Tibetan government-in-exile and the Dalai Lama has been a point of contention with China, which considers Tibet an integral part of its territory.

Strategic Influence:

  • Both countries vie for influence in the Asia-Pacific region, leading to competition in areas such as infrastructure development, economic partnerships, and military presence.

Economic Imbalance:

  • Trade imbalances and market access issues have created economic tensions. India has expressed concerns about the trade deficit and barriers to its exports to China.

Maritime Issues:

  • Disputes in the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean have implications for both countries. The development of ports and naval facilities by China in the Indian Ocean has raised strategic concerns for India.

Strategic Alliances:

  • China’s close ties with Pakistan, particularly in the context of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), have been viewed with suspicion by India.

Global Governance:

  • Differences in their approaches to global governance, particularly on issues like United Nations Security Council (UNSC) reforms, have been a source of contention.

Suggestions for Greater Cooperation:

Diplomatic Dialogue:

  • Both countries should engage in sustained diplomatic dialogue to address their differences. Establishing mechanisms for regular talks, including at the highest levels, can help build mutual understanding and trust.

Border Confidence-Building Measures:

  • Confidence-building measures along the border, such as improved communication channels between military forces, joint border patrols, and clearly demarcated border areas, could help prevent misunderstandings and reduce tensions.

Economic Engagement:

  • Promoting economic engagement through enhanced trade relations, addressing market access issues, and encouraging investment can create mutual benefits. Efforts to reduce trade imbalances and create a more level playing field should be explored.

People-to-People Exchanges:

  • Encouraging cultural and educational exchanges can foster understanding and goodwill among the people of both countries. This can be facilitated through initiatives like joint academic programs, cultural festivals, and tourism.

Multilateral Cooperation:

  • Both countries can explore opportunities for collaboration in multilateral forums on issues of shared interest, such as climate change, global health, and sustainable development. Working together on global challenges can build a sense of common purpose.

Track II Diplomacy:

  • Non-governmental channels, including think tanks, academics, and civil society groups, can play a role in promoting dialogue and finding common ground. Track II diplomacy can complement official efforts in resolving contentious issues.

Regional Security Mechanisms:

  • Exploring regional security mechanisms that involve both China and India can contribute to stability. This could include dialogue on security issues and joint efforts to combat common threats, such as terrorism.

It’s essential to recognize that resolving long standing issues requires political will, mutual trust, and a commitment to dialogue. The recommendations provided are general suggestions, and specific approaches may vary based on the evolving geopolitical context and the priorities of both nations. Ongoing efforts at diplomacy and dialogue are crucial for addressing the complexities of the China-India relationship.

Next Chapter of Class 12th Political Science