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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Contemporary South Asia

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 Contemporary South Asia

Class 12 Political Science, Chapter 3 on Contemporary South Asia, offers students a comprehensive view of the political dynamics in this vibrant region. In this chapter students gain valuable insights about the India and Pakistan country relations and Bangladesh and Pakistan or Nepal democracy struggle, ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, the south asian association for Regional Corporations. 

Memorysclub political science team of teachers provides the best exam-oriented solutions for Contemporary South Asia class 12 important questions. Below are the Contemporary South Asia class 12 question answers.

3. What are some of the commonalities and differences between Bangladesh and Pakistan in their democratic experiences?

Bangladesh and Pakistan have some similarities and differences which are as follows:


  • Military Rule in Both Countries: Both countries, Pakistan and Bangladesh, experienced periods of military rule.
  • Struggle for Democracy: Both nations underwent distinct struggles for democracy, facing challenges in establishing and maintaining democratic governance.
  • Pakistan’s Transition Under Generals: General Ayub Khan initiated Pakistan’s administration, but disillusionment led to Yahya’s military rule, with elections held to legitimize military rulers’ governance.

Bangladesh’s Democratic Challenges: Bangladesh experienced shifts in power after framing its constitution, including the presidency of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and subsequent military rule under Zia-ur-Rahman and Lt. Gen. H.M. Ershad, indicating a complex democratic evolution.

4. List three challenges to democracy in Nepal.

Answer: The three challenges to democracy in Nepal were the result of a triangular conflict between-

  1. the monarchist forces
  2. the democrats
  3. the Maoists

5. Name the principal players in the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. How do you assess the prospects of the resolution of this conflict?

The principal players in the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka were the Sinhalese majority and the Tamil minority. The conflict primarily revolved around issues of ethnic identity, language, and political power-sharing. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a militant Tamil organization, played a central role in the conflict, advocating for an independent Tamil state called Tamil Eelam. The Sri Lankan government, led by the Sinhalese majority, aimed to maintain the unitary state and resisted separatist demands.

Assessing the prospects of resolution is complex and depends on various factors. Historically, the conflict escalated into a brutal civil war that lasted for several decades. In 2009, the Sri Lankan government militarily defeated the LTTE, bringing an end to the armed conflict but also raising concerns about human rights violations and the treatment of Tamil civilians.

Efforts at reconciliation and resolution have been undertaken, including post-war initiatives to address grievances, implement devolution of power, and promote ethnic harmony. However, challenges remain, including issues related to accountability for past human rights abuses, political power-sharing, and addressing the root causes of the conflict.

The prospects for resolution depend on the commitment of the Sri Lankan government and the Tamil minority to engage in sincere dialogue, address historical grievances, and implement meaningful political reforms. International support and mediation efforts can also play a crucial role. Overall, the situation remains complex, and achieving a sustainable resolution requires a comprehensive and inclusive approach that addresses the concerns and aspirations of all communities involved.

6. Mention some of the recent agreements between India and Pakistan. Can we be sure that the two countries are well on their way to a friendly relationship?

India and Pakistan have engaged in diplomatic efforts and signed agreements on various issues, such as trade, cultural exchanges, and confidence-building measures.

  1. Liaquat-Nehru Pact (1950): Signed between Pakistan’s Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, this pact aimed at protecting the rights of minorities in both countries.
  2. Indus Waters Treaty (1960): Facilitated by the World Bank, this treaty regulates the use of the Indus River system and its tributaries between India and Pakistan.
  3. Tashkent Agreement (1966): Following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan signed this agreement in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, to restore economic and diplomatic relations.
  4. Simla Agreement (1972): Signed after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, this agreement outlined the principles for bilateral relations, including the return of prisoners of war and a commitment to resolve disputes through peaceful means.
  5. Lahore Declaration (1999): Signed between Prime Ministers Atal Bihari Vajpayee of India and Nawaz Sharif of Pakistan, this declaration aimed at building trust and resolving outstanding issues.
  6. Kartarpur Corridor Agreement (2019): Facilitated religious tourism by providing Sikh pilgrims from India access to the Kartarpur Sahib Gurdwara in Pakistan.

Assessment of Friendly Relationship:

  • Complex Relations: Despite occasional agreements, India and Pakistan have a history of complex relations marked by long standing issues, including the Kashmir dispute and security concerns.
  • Challenges Remain: Deep-rooted issues, historical tensions, and sporadic incidents along the border contribute to challenges in establishing a consistently friendly relationship.
  • Changing Dynamics: Political, security, and regional dynamics can impact relations. A comprehensive resolution of key issues is necessary for sustained improvement.

7. Mention two areas each of cooperation and disagreement between India and Bangladesh.

Areas of Disagreement:

  • Differences in River Waters: Issues related to the sharing of the Ganga and Brahmaputra river waters.
  • Illegal Immigration: Concerns and disagreements over illegal immigration to India.
  • Military Movement: Refusal to allow Indian troops to move through Bangladesh’s territory.
  • Natural Gas Export: Bangladesh’s decision not to export natural gas to India.

Areas of Cooperation:

  • Economic Relations: Considerable improvement in economic relations over the last decade.
  • Regional Connectivity: Bangladesh’s role in India’s ‘Look East’ policy to enhance connectivity with Southeast Asia via Myanmar.
  • Disaster Management and Environment: Cooperation on issues related to disaster management and environmental concerns.
  • Security Cooperation: Cooperation in identifying common threats and being sensitive to each other’s security needs.

8. How are the external powers influencing bilateral relations in South Asia? Take any one example to illustrate your point.

External powers influence bilateral relations in South Asia through diplomatic, economic, and strategic engagements. One example is the influence of China in the region, particularly in its relations with Pakistan. China’s involvement in South Asia has implications for the broader geopolitical landscape. Here’s an illustration:

Economic Ties: China’s investment in CPEC has significantly deepened economic ties between China and Pakistan. This has economic implications for the region, creating a closer economic partnership and promoting development in Pakistan.

Strategic Considerations: The strategic nature of CPEC raises concerns among neighboring countries, particularly India. The project passes through the Pakistan-administered territory of Gilgit-Baltistan, which India considers part of its territory of Jammu and Kashmir. This has led to geopolitical tensions and concerns over strategic interests.

Security and Counterterrorism Cooperation: The U.S. has engaged with countries in South Asia, particularly India and Pakistan, in the context of counterterrorism efforts and regional security. The U.S. has provided military aid and support to these countries to address shared concerns related to terrorism and extremism.

Afghanistan as a Regional Pivot: The U.S. military presence in Afghanistan and its engagement with regional countries, including India, Pakistan, and others, has been a focal point of U.S. strategy. The dynamics of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan have implications for the security calculus of neighboring South Asian countries.

This overview effectively captures the external dynamics shaping South Asian geopolitics, offering insights into the roles of China and the US in the region.

9. Write a short note on the role and the limitations of SAARC as a forum for facilitating economic cooperation among the South Asian Countries.

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), initiated in 1985 with seven member states, strives to foster cooperation and mutual understanding in South Asia. SAARC has introduced the South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA), creating free trade zones across the region for collective economic security. The organization’s primary focus is on promoting economic development among its member states, aiming to reduce dependencies on non-regional powers.

However, SAARC faces several limitations:

  1. Slow Growth: Political differences among member states contribute to the organization’s slow growth rate.
  2. Bilateral Conflicts: Bilateral conflicts, notably the Kashmir issue between India and Pakistan, hinder SAARC’s effectiveness in addressing regional challenges collectively.
  3. Perceived Dominance: Concerns are raised by some of India’s neighbors who fear potential Indian dominance, expressing worries about influence in their societies and politics.
  4. Financial Deficiency: SAARC member states, predominantly developing or least developed countries, encounter financial deficiencies, limiting the organization’s capacity to comprehensively address regional issues.

In conclusion, while SAARC plays a pivotal role in regional cooperation, overcoming political differences, resolving conflicts, and addressing financial constraints are critical for the organization to fully realize its potential in promoting unity and economic prosperity among South Asian nations.

10. India’s neighbors often think that the Indian government tries to dominate and interfere in the domestic affairs of the smaller countries of the region. Is this a correct impression?

No, the impression is incorrect. India manages its neighbors beyond its size and power, which can be justified on several grounds.

  1. India often feels exploited by its neighbors.
  2. On the other hand, India’s neighbors are concerned that India wants to dominate them regionally. However, India is centrally located and shares physical borders with other countries, which should be accepted on mutual understanding.
  3. India avoids political instability in its neighboring states so that outsiders should not take advantage of influence in the region.

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