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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 International Organisations

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 4 International Organisations

Class 12 Political Science, Chapter 4 on International Organisations, offers students a comprehensive understanding of international organizations and their role in shaping global governance. In this chapter, students will gain valuable insights into the history and objectives of the United Nations, as well as the vital bodies of the organization, such as the Security Council and General Assembly. They will also learn about the veto power countries and the importance of the United Nations in the global arena. 

This chapter is essential for your class 12th board exam in the past year exam were many questions came from this chapter. Memorysclub political science team of teachers provides the most suitable exam-oriented solutions for class 12 International Organisations important questions.

1. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the veto power:

(a) Only the permanent members of the Security Council possess the veto power.
(b) It’s a kind of negative power.
(c) The Secretary General uses this power when not satisfied with any decision.
(d) One veto can stall a Security Council resolution.

Answer: (a) Correct (b) Correct
(c) Wrong (d) Correct
(e) India (f) Maldives
(g) India (h) Nepal

2. Mark correct or wrong against each of the following statements about the way the UN functions:

(a) All security and peace related issues are dealt within the Security Council.
(b) Humanitarian policies are implemented by the main organs and specialised agencies spread across the globe.
(c) Having consensus among five permanent members on security issues is vital for its implementation.
(d) The members of the General Assembly are automatically the members of all other principal organs and specialized agencies of the UN.

Answer: (a) Correct (b) Wrong
(c) Correct (d) Wrong

3. Which among the following would give more weightage to India’s proposal for permanent membership in the Security Council?

(a) Nuclear capability
(b) It has been a member of the UN since its inception.
(c) It is located in Asia.
(d) India’s growing economic power and stable political system.

Answer: (d) India’s growing economic power and stable political system.

4. The UN agency concerned with the safety and peaceful use of nuclear technology is:

(a) The UN Committee on Disarmament
(b) International Atomic Energy Agency
(c) UN International Safeguard Committee
(d) None of the above.

Answer: (b) International Atomic Energy Agency

5. WTO is serving as the successor to which of the following organisations:

(a) General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
(b) General Arrangement on Trade and Tariffs
(c) World Health Organisation
(d) UN Development Programme

Answer: (a) General Agreement on Trade and Tari

6. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The prime objective of UN is
(b) The highest functionary of the UN is called
(c) The UN Security Council has permanent and non permanent members.
(d) is the present UN Secretary General.

Answer: (a) to maintain peace and security
(b) Secretariat
(c) 5, 10
(d) Ban-ki-Moon

8. What are the functions of the Security Council?

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has several key functions, primarily focused on maintaining international peace and security. The functions of the Security Council, as outlined in the United Nations Charter, include:

  1. Maintenance of International Peace and Security: The primary responsibility of the Security Council is to maintain international peace and security. It addresses threats to peace, acts of aggression, and breaches of peace, taking measures to restore or maintain stability.
  2. Investigation and Prevention of Conflicts: The Security Council has the authority to investigate any situation that might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute. It works to prevent conflicts through diplomacy, dialogue, and the use of preventive measures.
  3. Peacekeeping Operations: The Security Council can deploy UN peacekeeping forces to areas affected by conflict to help implement ceasefires, monitor truces, and facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid. These peacekeeping operations aim to stabilize situations and create conditions for lasting peace.
  4. Imposition of Sanctions: The Security Council has the power to impose economic and diplomatic sanctions on nations that pose threats to international peace. Sanctions are used as a tool to encourage compliance with international law and Security Council resolutions.
  5. Authorization of the Use of Force: In cases where peaceful means prove inadequate, the Security Council may authorize the use of force to address threats to peace. This typically involves military intervention to restore or maintain security.

The functions of the Security Council are central to the UN’s mission of preventing conflicts, promoting stability, and fostering international cooperation. The Council’s decisions, however, are subject to the veto power of its five permanent members—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States

9. As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the Security Council? Justify your proposal.

The points you’ve listed highlight significant aspects of India’s global importance and its role in international relations. Here’s a concise summary of each point:

  • Demographic Significance: – India is the most populous country globally, representing one-fifth of the world’s population. This demographic weight emphasizes India’s impact on global affairs and its potential as a key player in addressing global challenges.
  • Largest Democracy: – India stands as the world’s largest democracy, exemplifying the principles of representative governance, political pluralism, and individual freedoms. Its democratic values contribute to a more inclusive and participatory global order.
  • Economic Emergence:- India’s economic emergence on the world stage signifies its growing role as a major economic power. Its robust economic growth, technological advancements, and a large consumer market make India a crucial player in the global economy.
  • Financial Contributor to the UN: – India’s status as a regular financial contributor to the United Nations reflects its commitment to international cooperation and the maintenance of global peace and security. Financial contributions support various UN initiatives and programs.
  • Growing Importance in World Affairs: – India’s foreign policy reflects a growing importance in world affairs. Its diplomatic engagements, strategic partnerships, and active participation in international forums underline India’s role as a key player in shaping the global geopolitical landscape.
  • Active Participation in UN Initiatives: – India’s active participation in all initiatives of the United Nations demonstrates its commitment to addressing global challenges collectively. This engagement spans peacekeeping missions, development initiatives, and diplomatic efforts to promote international cooperation.

In summary, these points collectively emphasize India’s multifaceted role on the global stage, encompassing demographic significance, democratic values, economic prowess, financial contributions, diplomatic engagements, and active participation in international initiatives. India’s influence extends beyond its borders, contributing to the shaping of a more interconnected and cooperative world.

10. Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN.

Implementing suggested reforms to reconstruct the United Nations (UN) faces numerous difficulties and challenges due to the complex nature of international relations, divergent national interests, and geopolitical considerations. Here is a critical evaluation of the difficulties involved:

  • Security Council Reform:
      • Veto Power: Altering the composition of the Security Council, particularly addressing the issue of veto power held by permanent members, is a major challenge. Existing permanent members may resist diluting their veto authority.
      • Regional Representation: Determining criteria for selecting new permanent members and ensuring equitable regional representation pose challenges, as different regions may have conflicting interests and demands.
  • Decision-Making Processes:
      • Consensus vs. Voting: Striking a balance between achieving consensus and resorting to voting mechanisms is challenging. Reforms aimed at making decision-making more efficient may face resistance from member states protective of their sovereign interests.
  • Financial Reforms:
      • Fair Burden Sharing: Allocating financial responsibilities more equitably among member states is a complex task. There may be resistance from both donor and recipient nations, and reaching a consensus on a fair burden-sharing formula is challenging.
  • Bureaucratic Challenges:
      • Administrative Overhead: Implementing reforms often involves restructuring bureaucratic processes. Resistance to change within the UN bureaucracy and the potential for increased administrative overhead pose challenges to the smooth implementation of reforms.
  • Global Power Dynamics:
      • Power Imbalance: Reform efforts may be hindered by the existing power dynamics among nations. Powerful countries may resist changes that could reduce their influence, while emerging powers may demand a more significant role in decision-making.
  • Human Rights and Accountability:

    • Enforcement Mechanisms: Strengthening mechanisms for enforcing human rights and ensuring accountability may face opposition from countries with records of human rights abuses. Striking a balance between respecting sovereignty and addressing human rights violations is a complex task.
In conclusion, the points highlight the indispensable role of the UN in facilitating global cooperation, addressing pressing challenges, providing financial assistance, resolving disputes, and fostering a shared commitment to international peace and understanding. Despite its limitations, the UN remains a cornerstone of the international system.

12. “Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council”. Do you agree with this statement? Give arguments for or against this position.

The statement “Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council” encapsulates a widely debated aspect of UN reform. The position on whether restructuring the Security Council is the key to UN reform is subject to various perspectives. Here are arguments both for and against this position:

Arguments in Favor of Restructuring the Security Council:

  • Equitable Representation:
      • Argument: Restructuring the Security Council is essential to ensure more equitable representation. The current composition, with five permanent members holding veto power, does not adequately reflect the geopolitical realities of the 21st century.
      • Rationale: Including more countries as permanent members, particularly from regions not represented among the current permanent members, would enhance the Council’s legitimacy and effectiveness.
  • Addressing Power Imbalance:
      • Argument: Restructuring can help address the power imbalance inherent in the current structure. It allows for a more inclusive distribution of influence, reducing the perception of dominance by a few powerful nations.
      • Rationale: A restructured Security Council could better accommodate the interests and concerns of a broader array of nations, fostering a more collaborative and cooperative international system.
  • Enhanced Decision-Making:
    • Argument: A more inclusive Security Council could lead to enhanced decision-making. A diverse membership would bring a wider range of perspectives, potentially resulting in more effective and representative policy outcomes.
    • Rationale: Greater inclusivity may reduce instances of deadlock, as a broader set of nations could contribute to consensus-building and conflict resolution.

Arguments Against Restructuring the Security Council:

  • Veto Power Preservation:
      • Argument: Restructuring the Security Council might jeopardize the preservation of the veto power, a key aspect of the Council’s functionality. Permanent members may be unwilling to relinquish this privilege.
      • Rationale: Veto power is seen by some as a necessary tool for protecting the interests of powerful nations and maintaining global stability.
  • Complex Negotiations:
      • Argument: The process of restructuring the Security Council is complex and challenging. Negotiating new arrangements, determining criteria for new permanent members, and addressing regional interests are intricate tasks.
      • Rationale: The difficulties in reaching a consensus among member states on restructuring could impede the overall reform process and lead to protracted debates.
  • Focus on Broader Reforms:
    • Argument: Restructuring the Security Council alone may not be sufficient for comprehensive UN reform. Attention should also be given to addressing bureaucratic inefficiencies, improving decision-making processes, and enhancing the organization’s responsiveness.
    • Rationale: Broader reforms may be necessary to ensure the UN’s relevance and effectiveness in addressing the diverse challenges of the contemporary world.

In conclusion, while restructuring the Security Council is a significant aspect of UN reform, it is not the only factor. The debate involves balancing the need for more inclusive representation with the complexities of negotiating changes to a critical component of the international system. Comprehensive reform efforts may require addressing a range of issues beyond the Security Council alone.

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