Memorysclub / NCERT Solutions / NCERT Solutions for Class 12 / NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science / NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Security in the Contemporary World

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Security in the Contemporary World

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 Security in the Contemporary World

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 5 on Security in The Contemporary World gives students a comprehensive understanding of Security and its role in nations’ and global threats. In this chapter, students will gain valuable insights about the definition of security and the difference between traditional security and non-traditional Security. This chapter is essential for your class 12th board exam in the past year exam were many questions from this chapter. Memorysclub political science team of teachers provides the most suitable exam-oriented solutions for class 12 security in the contemporary world notes.

1. Match the terms with their meaning:

1. Confidence Building Measures (CBMs)
2. Arms Control
3. Alliance
4. Disarmament
(a) Giving up certain types ofweapons.
(b) A process of exchanging information on defence matters between nations on a regular basis.
(c) A coalition of nations meant to deter or defend against military attacks.
(d) Regulates the acquisition of development of weapons.

Answer: (i)-(b); (ii)-(d); (iii)-(c); (iv)-(a).

2. Which among the following would you consider as a traditional security concern/non-traditional/not a threat?

(a) The spread of chikungunya/dengue fever
(b) Inflow of workers from a neighbouring nation.
(c) Emergence of a group demanding nationhood for their region.
(d) Emergence of a group demanding autonomy for their region.
(e) A newspaper that is critical of the armed-forces in the country.

Answer: (a) Non-traditional (b) Non-traditional !(c) Traditional id) Not a threat
(e) Not a threat

3. What is the difference between traditional and non-traditional security? Which category would the creation and sustenance of alliances belong to?

The differences between traditional and non-traditional security are stated below:

Traditional Security

Non-traditional Security

The traditional concept of security has typically been associated

with the use or threat of military threats.

Non-traditional security encompasses threats beyond military action that impact human existence.

Endangering a nation’s sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity, the concept of security through military action also jeopardizes the lives of citizens within its jurisdiction.

It broadens the concept of security to encompass the safety of individuals, people, and humanity as a whole.

The concept of security has two aspects: external threats from other countries and internal threats from groups or regions seeking secession.

One refers to human security or global security from non-state actors and new sources of danger.

In this case, the use of force is both a threat and a means of achieving peace and security.

It identifies various global threats, including terrorism, poverty, human rights violations, epidemics, and migration.

4. What are the differences in the threats that people in the third world face and those living in the First World face?

The threats faced by people in the Third World (developing countries) and those in the First World (developed countries) can differ significantly due to variations in socio-economic conditions, infrastructure, and global positioning. Here are key differences:

  1. The newly independent countries faced external threats through military conflicts with their neighboring states, leading to heightened tensions along their borders.
  2. Internally, these nations grappled with threats posed by separatist movements, seeking independence and the creation of distinct nations within the newly formed states.
  3. At times, the challenges became intertwined as both external and internal threats merged, creating a complex and layered security scenario for the newly independent countries.
  4. The combination of external wars with neighbors and internal conflicts posed a significant and formidable challenge to the security and stability of these nascent states.

5. Is terrorism a traditional or non- traditional threat to security?

  1. Terrorism involves the deliberate and indiscriminate targeting of civilians through acts of political violence, intending to instill fear and achieve specific objectives.
  2. Civilians become pawns in the conflict as they are intentionally terrorized, serving as a means to exert pressure on national governments and other involved parties.
  3. Acts of terrorism encompass a range of tactics, including hijacking planes and planting bombs in crowded places such as trains, cafes, and markets, aiming to maximize casualties and create widespread panic.
  4. The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, marked a turning point, drawing increased global attention to the severity of the terrorism threat. Governments and the public worldwide began prioritizing counterterrorism efforts in response to the heightened awareness of this non-traditional security challenge.

6. What are the choices available to a state when its security is threatened, according to traditional security perspectives?

  1. To surrender when confronted by war, but they will not advertise this as the policy of the country.
  2. To prevent an attack, one side can promise to raise the costs of war to an unacceptable level for the other side.
  3. To defend itself during the war, a country must deny the attacker’s objectives and defeat the attacking forces.
  4. Hence, The state’s security policy aims to prevent war through deterrence and defense. 

7. What is Balance of Power? How could a state achieve this?

The balance of power is a concept in international relations that refers to the distribution of power among states or groups to prevent any single entity from becoming dominant and potentially posing a threat to the stability of the international system. The aim is to maintain equilibrium, discouraging aggression and promoting a situation where no single state has the ability to impose its will unchecked.

Achieving Balance of Power:

A state can achieve a balance of power through various diplomatic, military, and strategic measures. Here are key ways:

  • Alliances and Coalition Building:
      • Strategy: Form alliances or coalitions with other states to create a collective force that can counterbalance potential threats.
      • Rationale: Shared military capabilities and mutual defense commitments strengthen the overall power of allied states.
  • Military Buildup and Deterrence:
      • Strategy: Invest in military capabilities to deter potential aggressors and maintain a credible defense posture.
      • Rationale: A well-equipped and formidable military acts as a deterrent, dissuading other states from engaging in hostile actions.
  • Diplomacy and Power Projection:
    • Strategy: Engage in diplomatic efforts to influence the behavior of other states and project power regionally or globally.
    • Rationale: Diplomacy can shape alliances, garner support, and influence the decisions of other states without resorting to military force.

8. What are the objectives of military alliances? Give an example of a functioning military alliance with its specific objectives.

Objectives of Military Alliances:

  1. Alliance building is a crucial element of traditional security strategies, allowing states and nations to collectively deter or defend against military attacks.
  2. Alliances are formalized through written treaties, specifying the members and identifying potential threats that the alliance aims to address.
  3. The formation of alliances is motivated by the desire to increase effective power relative to potential adversaries, creating a stronger and more secure collective.

Example: The U.S. and its alliance dynamics evolved during the Cold War and post-9/11 era, illustrating the dynamic nature of alliances in response to changing geopolitical circumstances and national interests.

9. Rapid environmental degradation is causing a serious threat to security. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.

Yes, I agree with the statement that rapid environmental degradation poses a serious threat to security. Here are substantiating arguments:

  • Resource Scarcity and Conflict:- Rapid environmental degradation contributes to resource scarcity, including water and arable land. This scarcity can lead to conflicts over access to essential resources, exacerbating tensions and potentially sparking violence.
  • Climate-Induced Displacement: – Climate change, driven by environmental degradation, leads to rising sea levels, extreme weather events, and changing ecosystems. This, in turn, results in displacement of populations, causing migration patterns that can strain resources in receiving areas and contribute to conflicts.
  • Food Insecurity: – Environmental degradation affects agricultural productivity, leading to food insecurity. Competition for limited food resources can escalate tensions within and between nations, posing a threat to stability.
  • Increased Frequency of Natural Disasters: – Environmental degradation intensifies the frequency and severity of natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, and wildfires. These disasters can overwhelm governments and institutions, leading to humanitarian crises and potential security challenges

In conclusion, rapid environmental degradation is a multifaceted threat that intertwines with various aspects of security, including resource scarcity, climate-induced displacement, food insecurity, natural disasters, loss of biodiversity, and global migration challenges. Recognizing and addressing these environmental issues is crucial for promoting global stability and security.

10. Nuclear weapons as deterrence or defence have limited usage against contemporary security threats to states. Explain the statement.

  1. Arms-Control Cooperation:- Arms-control methods, including international treaties like the NPT, aim to foster cooperation among nations to regulate and limit the acquisition and proliferation of nuclear weapons.
  2. NPT’s Grandfather Clause: – The NPT, enacted in 1968, included a grandfather clause allowing countries possessing nuclear weapons before 1967 (U.S., Russia, China, UK, France) to retain them, recognizing them as nuclear powers.
  3. Limiting Acquisition: – Non-nuclear-armed states, under the NPT, committed not to acquire nuclear weapons. The treaty sought to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons while allowing access to peaceful nuclear technology for energy purposes.
  4. Limitation, Not Abolition: – The NPT did not seek outright abolition but aimed to limit the number of countries possessing nuclear weapons, acknowledging existing nuclear powers and encouraging disarmament efforts.

11. Looking at the Indian scenario, what type of security has been given priority in India, traditional or non-traditional? What examples could you cite to substantiate the arguments?

In the Indian scenario, both traditional and non-traditional security concerns are addressed, but the prioritization has shifted over time. While traditional security has historical significance due to geopolitical challenges, contemporary developments highlight a growing emphasis on non-traditional security. Here are examples to substantiate the arguments:

  • Traditional Security Emphasis:
      • Historical Context: India has historically faced traditional security threats, particularly in its relationships with neighboring countries, such as Pakistan and China. Historical conflicts and territorial disputes have emphasized the importance of maintaining a robust military posture.
      • Military Preparedness: India has invested significantly in military capabilities, including conventional forces and nuclear deterrence. The nuclear tests in 1998 underscored India’s commitment to traditional security measures, especially in the context of regional dynamics.
      • Border Tensions: Ongoing border tensions, such as those in Kashmir with Pakistan and along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China, reinforce the continuing relevance of traditional security considerations.
  • Non-Traditional Security Emphasis:
      • Economic and Environmental Concerns: In recent years, India has placed increasing importance on non-traditional security issues. Economic stability and sustainable development are crucial components of national security. Addressing environmental challenges, such as climate change and natural disasters, is recognized as essential for long-term security.
      • Global Health Security: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the interconnectedness of health security with national and global well-being. India’s response to the pandemic, including vaccine diplomacy and cooperation with international organizations, reflects a non-traditional security priority.
      • Energy Security: Diversification of energy sources and the push for renewable energy reflect a strategic shift toward non-traditional security concerns. Ensuring a stable and sustainable energy supply is integral to India’s overall security framework.
      • Cybersecurity: The increasing reliance on digital infrastructure has led India to prioritize cybersecurity. Protecting critical information systems and countering cyber threats are essential elements of contemporary security planning.
  • Integrated Approach:
    • Comprehensive National Security: India’s national security strategy increasingly adopts an integrated approach that combines traditional and non-traditional elements. Recognizing the multifaceted nature of security challenges, India seeks a holistic approach that encompasses military strength, economic resilience, technological innovation, and environmental sustainability.
    • Examples of Synergy: Initiatives like the “Act East Policy” and “Neighborhood First Policy” reflect a comprehensive strategy that incorporates both traditional and non-traditional security concerns. Economic partnerships, regional cooperation, and people-centric development are integral to these policies.

In conclusion, while India continues to address traditional security challenges, there is a discernible shift toward prioritizing non-traditional security concerns. The evolving security landscape demands a comprehensive and adaptable approach that integrates various dimensions to safeguard national interests effectively.

Next Chapter of Class 12th Political Science​​