Memorysclub / NCERT Solutions / NCERT Solutions for Class 12 / NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science / NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 Regional Aspirations

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 6 Regional Aspirations

Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 Regional Aspirations

Regional Aspirations of Class 12 Political Science Part 2 Chapter 6 gives students a comprehensive knowledge of regional demands often highlighting the diverse needs, aspirations, and identities of various communities while recognizing the overarching unity of the Indian nation. In this chapter notes, students read about which Indian state demands regional aspirations according to heterogenization culture and geographical demands. How do these demands affect the unity of the Indian nation? 

This chapter is essential for your class’s 12th board exam in the past year exam where many questions came from this chapter. Memorysclub political science team of teachers provides the most suitable exam-oriented solutions for Regional Aspirations Class 12 question answers.

1. Match the following.


Answer: (a)-(iii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(ii), (d)-(i).

2. Regional aspirations of the people of the North-East get expressed in different ways. These include movements against outsiders, movement for greater autonomy and movement for separate. National existence on the map of the North-East, using different shades for these three, show the States where these expressions are prominently found.

Answer: Tripura, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (See the Map at the end of the Chapter).

3. What were the main provisions of the Punjab accord? In what way can they be the basis for further tensions between the Punjab and its neighboring States?

Answer – If you’re referring to an agreement or accord related to the Indian state of Punjab, it’s important to note that there have been historical agreements and accords, such as the Punjab Accord of 1985. This accord was primarily related to addressing issues arising from the demand for a separate Sikh state, Khalistan, and the broader issue of regional autonomy.

  1. Transfer of Chandigarh: The accord involved the transfer of the city of Chandigarh to Punjab. Chandigarh had been serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana after the reorganization of states in 1966.
  2. River Waters: There were provisions related to the sharing of river waters between Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan.
  3. Compensation for Loss of Territory: Compensation was promised to Punjab for the loss of territory during the reorganization of states in 1966.

These provisions were aimed at addressing the demands for regional autonomy and addressing the grievances of the Sikh community. However, tensions can still arise for various reasons, including:

  1. Implementation Issues: Disputes can arise over the implementation of the accord and the fulfillment of its provisions.
  2. Inter-state Water Disputes: River water sharing agreements can be a source of tension, especially if there are disputes over the equitable distribution of water among states.

Hence, it was not possible to restore the political process in the given atmosphere. Even during the elections of 1992, only 24% of the electors turned out to vote. Consequently, the above-mentioned factors added to the tension between Punjab and its neighboring states.

4. Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial?

The Anandpur Sahib Resolution, adopted by the Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) at its annual session in Anandpur Sahib in 1973, became controversial due to its demands and perceived implications. The resolution was a political document outlining the demands and aspirations of the Sikh community in India, but it led to controversy for several reasons:

  1. Due to the lack of popularity, the Akali Dal resolution had a United appeal.
  2. The Anandpur Sahib Resolution proposed the creation of autonomous regions within the Indian federal structure, allowing states more control over their resources and administration. 
  3. The resolution sought greater control over river waters flowing through Punjab. This demand raised concerns in neighboring states like Haryana and Rajasthan, leading to potential inter-state water disputes.
  4. Although the term “Khalistan” was not explicitly mentioned in the Anandpur Sahib Resolution, some interpreted the demands for autonomy and greater Sikh control as a precursor to the demand for a separate Sikh state, Khalistan.
  5. The resolution was adopted during a period of political turbulence in India, with issues such as the Emergency (1975-1977) affecting the political landscape.

5. Explain the internal divisions of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and describe how these lead to multiple regional aspirations in that State.

Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) had historically been a region marked by diverse ethnic, religious, and cultural identities, and this diversity contributed to internal divisions. The internal divisions of the state and their historical context led to multiple regional aspirations. Here are key aspects of the internal divisions:

  1. Geographical and Demographic Diversity:
    1. Jammu: The Jammu region, predominantly Hindu, is known for its Hindu-majority population and cultural distinctions. It has historically maintained a distinct identity from the Kashmir Valley.
    2. Kashmir Valley: The Kashmir Valley, with a Muslim-majority population, has its own cultural and historical identity. The Valley has been a focal point for political movements and aspirations.
  2. Religious Demographics: – The religious composition of different regions (Hindu-majority in Jammu, Muslim-majority in the Kashmir Valley) contributed to distinct regional identities and aspirations.
  3. Political and Administrative Divisions: – The state had a special autonomous status under Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, which granted it considerable autonomy. However, this autonomy was often a source of contention between different regions, with some feeling marginalized in the political structure.
  4. Ethnic and Linguistic Differences: – Various ethnic and linguistic groups, including Gujjars, Bakarwals, and Dogras, have distinct identities within the state, and their aspirations sometimes differ from the dominant narratives of Jammu or Kashmir.

These internal divisions led to multiple regional aspirations within the state:

  1. Autonomy for the Kashmir Valley: – Some in the Kashmir Valley aspired for greater autonomy and special status, advocating for the preservation of their distinct identity.
  2. Integration with India in Jammu: – In Jammu, there were aspirations for closer integration with the rest of India, often fueled by a desire for political and economic development.

Ethnic and Linguistic Aspirations: – Ethnic and linguistic groups within the state often had specific aspirations related to their cultural identity and representation in political and administrative structures.

6. What are the various positions on the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir? Which of these do you think are justifiable? Give reasons for your answer.

On the issue of regional autonomy for Kashmir, the following positions are stated:

  1. Kashmiris were promised a plebiscite to determine their future after the tribal invasion, but this promise was not fulfilled.
  2. Sometimes, it was felt that the special federal status guaranteed by Article 370 had been practically eroded. This led to the demand for restoring autonomy or “Greater State Autonomy”.
  3.  It is believed that while democracy is practiced throughout India, it has not been fully established in Jammu and Kashmir. The preferred position is to hold a plebiscite, as it offers the best chance for the people of Jammu and Kashmir to democratically safeguard and maintain their regional autonomy.

7. The Assam movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.


  1. It was against outsiders to maintain the cultural integration of Assam.
  2. Despite the abundance of natural resources such as tea, coal, and oil, Assam still faces widespread poverty and unemployment.
  3. It was believed that these resources were being drained from the state without any corresponding benefit to the people.

8. All regional movements need not lead to separatist demands. Explain by giving examples from this chapter.

Certainly, all regional movements do not necessarily lead to separatist demands. Some regional movements focus on achieving regional autonomy, greater representation, or addressing specific grievances within the framework of the existing political structure. Here are a few examples from various regions:

  1. Regional aspirations are part of democratic politics.
  2. Expression of regional issues is not an abnormal phenomenon.
  3. Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have ambitions to maintain their distinct regional identities within the United Kingdom.
  4. Regional movements are responded to through democratic negotiations rather than suppression.
  5. In the 1980s, there were several issues in India, including military conflict in Punjab, ongoing problems in the northeast, student protests in Assam, and unrest in Kashmir.
  6. The Indian government has settled with regional aspirations to reduce tensions in many regions.
  7. Mizoram is an example of an effective political settlement to resolve separation.

9. Regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of unity with diversity. Do you agree? Give reasons.

Yes, the regional demands from different parts of India exemplify the principle of “unity in diversity.” This concept reflects the idea that, despite the vast cultural, linguistic, religious, and ethnic diversity across the country, there is a shared sense of unity as a nation. Regional demands often highlight the diverse needs, aspirations, and identities of various communities while recognizing the overarching unity of the Indian nation. Here are some reasons to support this viewpoint:

Cultural Diversity: – India is known for its rich cultural diversity, with each region having its unique traditions, languages, and customs. Regional demands often arise from a desire to preserve and promote the distinct cultural identity of a particular community or region within the broader Indian mosaic.

Linguistic Plurality: – The linguistic diversity in India is extensive, and many regional movements have historical roots in language-related issues. For example, the reorganization of states on linguistic lines after independence aimed at recognizing and respecting linguistic identities. This approach reflects a commitment to unity by accommodating linguistic diversity.

Federal Structure: – India’s federal structure allows for regional autonomy and self-governance. While there is a strong central government, individual states have a degree of autonomy in managing their affairs. This accommodative federal structure helps address the diverse needs of different regions while maintaining national unity.

Administrative Reorganization: Over the years, India has witnessed administrative reorganization to address regional aspirations and concerns. The creation of new states and the redefinition of boundaries have been carried out to accommodate the socio-economic and cultural distinctiveness of various regions.

Recognition of Regional Aspirations: – The Indian Constitution recognizes and accommodates regional aspirations. It provides for special provisions and safeguards for certain states or regions, reflecting a commitment to acknowledging and addressing their unique historical, cultural, and socio-economic circumstances.

Formation of Autonomous Bodies: – In response to regional demands, India has seen the formation of autonomous bodies and councils that allow specific regions to have more control over local governance and development. Examples include the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA) in West Bengal and the Bodoland Territorial Region (BTR) in Assam.

While regional demands may highlight diversity, the overarching unity of India is reinforced through constitutional principles, shared democratic values, and a commitment to the coexistence of diverse cultures and identities within a single nation. The principle of “unity in diversity” remains a guiding philosophy for the Indian state.

Next Chapter of Class 12th Political Science​​​​​​